- 2D:4D ratios predict hand grip strength (but not hand grip endurance) in men (but not in women) (From Evolution & Human Behavior, Volume 33, Issue 6 , Pages 780-789, November 2012, by Liana S.E. Hone & Michael E. McCullough).
A single sentence on this article: more (somewhat limited) evidence that 2D:4D correlates to masculinity.
Abstract:“In humans, the ratio of the second digit to the fourth digit — the 2D:4D ratio — is a sexually dimorphic trait (men, on average, exhibit lower 2D:4D ratios than do women) that is influenced by prenatal testosterone exposure, but not by circulating testosterone levels in adulthood. Consequently, 2D:4D ratios are commonly used as indirect measures of prenatal testosterone exposure. Many studies have examined the associations of 2D:4D ratios with sexually dimorphic adaptations that are thought to be influenced by such exposure, including physical prowess. The existing literature, however, remains unclear as to (1) whether 2D:4D ratios are more closely linked to strength or to endurance; and (2) whether 2D:4D ratios are linked with physical prowess for both men and women. In 100 men and 122 women, the relationship of 2D:4D ratios with maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) scores (hand grip strength) and maximum endurance time (MET) scores (local muscular endurance) using a hand dynamometer was examined. Controlling for age, height, weight, and average digit length, we found that 2D:4D ratios significantly predicted MVC scores in men, but not in women. 2D:4D ratios did not significantly predict MET scores for either sex. These results suggest that prenatal testosterone exposure in this sample is significantly related to hand grip strength in men, but not in women (and to local muscular endurance in neither sex), and, therefore, that strength, rather than local muscular endurance, potentially drives the relationship between 2D:4D ratios and physical prowess.”
- Children and marital satisfaction in a non-Western sample: having more children increases marital satisfaction among the Igbo people of Nigeria (From Evolution & Human Behavior, Volume 33, Issue 6 , Pages 771-774, November 2012, by Ernest I. Onyishi, Piotr Sorokowski, Agnieszka Sorokowska, R. Nathan Pipitone)
A single sentence on this article: We may think Africa is poor and in trouble, and it is true is some ways, but they still reproduce more than the west (which makes them more biologically successful in a way) and enjoy their children more than they enjoy their cellphones/emails/reality TV…
Abstract: “Previous research has demonstrated that having more children decreases marital satisfaction among parents. However, the universality of these findings is limited since the vast majority of the studies have been conducted in Western countries. In the present study, 374 people from the Igbo ethnic group (Nigeria) were assessed for levels of marital satisfaction and the number of children. In contrast to almost all previous findings, we found a positive relationship between the number of children and marital satisfaction among parents. Number of children was the strongest predictor of marital satisfaction even when compared to other variables like wealth and education. Our results suggest that the negative relationship between the number of children and marital satisfaction is not culturally universal and probably only characterizes developed, individualistic Western countries. We discuss our findings from a sociocultural and evolutionary perspective.”
- Cues to fertility: perceived attractiveness and facial shape predict reproductive success (From Evolution & Human Behavior, Volume 33, Issue 6 , Pages 708-714, November 2012, by Lena S. Pflüger, Elisabeth Oberzaucher, Stanislav Katina, Iris J. Holzleitner, Karl Grammer)
A single sentence on this article: Feminine women with symmetric faces have more children than ugly fat cows (in rural places, not in the developed west).
Abstract:“Attractive facial features in women are assumed to signal fertility, but whether facial attractiveness predicts reproductive success in women is still a matter of debate. We investigated the association between facial attractiveness at young adulthood and reproductive life history—number of children and pregnancies—in women of a rural community. For the analysis of reproductive success, we divided the sample into women who used contraceptives and women who did not. Introducing two-dimensional geometric morphometric methodology, we analysed which specific characteristics in facial shape drive the assessment of attractiveness and covary with lifetime reproductive success. A set of 93 (semi)landmarks was digitized as two-dimensional coordinates in postmenopausal faces. We calculated the degree of fluctuating asymmetry and regressed facial shape on facial attractiveness at youth and reproductive success. Among women who never used hormonal contraceptives, we found attractive women to have more biological offspring than less attractive women. These findings are not affected by sociodemographic variables. Postmenopausal faces corresponding to high reproductive success show more feminine features—facial characteristics previously assumed to be honest cues to fertility. Our findings support the notion that facial attractiveness at the age of mate choice predicts reproductive success and that facial attractiveness is based on facial characteristics, which seem to remain stable until postmenopausal age.”
- The role of body fat in female attractiveness (From Evolution & Human Behavior Volume 33, Issue 6 , Pages 672-681, November 2012, by Mark D. Faries, John B. Bartholomew)
A single sentence on this article: Waist-to-hip ratio, which is an indicator of female attractiveness, is distorted by body fat, i.e. fat women are unattractive regardless of their waist to hip ratio.
Abstract: “The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of body fat percentage (BF%) on female attractiveness. To this end, a series of female body images were selected from a collection of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans. Images were stratified by three levels (low, mid, and high) of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and seven levels (15%–50%) of BF%. These 21 images were presented in a random order and rated for attractiveness. Results indicate that WHR, BMI, and BF% are all significant predictors of female attractiveness when regressed separately (R2=0.19, 0.70, and 0.76, respectively). When regressed simultaneously, all three variables accounted for 87% of the variance in image attractiveness, with only BF% and WHR being significant predictors. Further analysis revealed that body fat might disrupt the negative linear relationship between WHR and attractiveness. Men and women differed significantly in most categories of WHR and BF%, with men generally rating images as less attractive than women. These data indicate that BF% appears to be a strong cue for attractiveness and that the impact of WHR and BMI on attractiveness is dependent, in part, on BF%. The appearance of body fat may provide disruption in the visual cues of both shape and size of the female body, potentially impacting behavior.”
- Testosterone levels correlate with the number of children in human males, but the direction of the relationship depends on paternal education (From Evolution & Human Behavior, Volume 33, Issue 6 , Pages 665-671, November 2012 by Grazyna Jasienska, Michal Jasienski, Peter T. Ellison)
Two sentences on this article: High testosterone makes you more likely to impregnate women and have more children but being a father reduces your testosterone. Education makes one mechanism more important than the other.
Abstract: “Most research shows that fatherhood is related to reduced testosterone (T) levels, but relationships between the number of children and T levels are not addressed. In humans, paternal care usually involves obtaining adequate resources to support children, which may require engaging in male–male competition and maintaining high T levels. We hypothesize that T levels in fathers should increase with increasing family size. In 78 Polish men, aged 30 to 77 years, the number of children was significantly correlated with paternal T levels, but the direction of this relationship was dependent on the fathers’ education. In agreement with our hypothesis, in men with below-college education, T levels increased with increasing number of children. In contrast, in men with college education, the number of children was negatively related to paternal T levels. Drop in T levels throughout the day tended to be less pronounced the more children fathers had, irrespective of their educational level. Our results suggest that a hypothesis of simple trade-offs between mating and parenting effort may be too simplistic to explain changes in testosterone response to parenting in human males. In order to understand functional response of changes in T levels, it is crucial to account for family size and socioeconomic factors. However, due to the cross-sectional study design, we cannot exclude the possibility that T levels influenced reproductive behavior (rather than vice versa) and thus the number of children produced by men.”
- Childlessness drives the sex difference in the association between income and reproductive success of modern Europeans (From Evolution & Human Behavior, Volume 33, Issue 6 , Pages 628-638, November 2012, by Julia A. Barthold, Mikko Myrskylä, Owen R. Jones)
Three sentences on this article: Women with low income are less likely to have children than high income women, while the inverse is true for men (high income men have more children than low income men). Gender dimorphism with regard to status and income seems to increase, not decrease, in feminist-controlled countries. Social engineering seems to be backfiring… maybe our future sons will enjoy feminine family-oriented women instead of the lawyercunt-don’t know to cook-slut-BShD-feminist-modern-woman.
Abstract:“The association between reproductive success and income in economically developed societies remains a controversial and understudied topic. The commonly made statement that individuals with a higher income have fewer children defies evolutionary explanation. Here we present results from an analyses of the association between lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and income for modern Europeans from 13 countries. We examine the relationships among income, partner income, sex and LRS, and the role of childlessness in driving the relationships. For women, we find a negative association between LRS and income, while for men, we find a flat or slightly positive one. The sex difference in the association appears to be driven by income’s sex-specific association with childlessness; men with a low income have a relatively high risk of childlessness, while women with a low income have a low risk of childlessness. Consequently, once childless people are excluded from the analysis, LRS is negatively associated with income for both sexes. We argue that the observed LRS–income associations may be an outcome of evolved behavioural predispositions operating in modern environments and conclude that, even though humans fail to maximise LRS at all income levels in modern settings, evolutionary theory can still help to explain sex differences in LRS.”
Announcement, As maybe some of you know, I am writing this blog with the intention of collecting the ideas presented here into a book, which will be entitled ‘A Guide for a Young Patriarch’. There is already a rough draft of the book. However, in recent weeks, I decided to dump the current draft and rewrite it anew. So the book will take more time to be ready…
Wide Gender Gap on Importance of Abortion as Election Issue (From PEW RESEARCH CENTER FOR THE PEOPLE & THE PRESS)
“Women are far more likely than men to rate several issues as very important to their vote in the presidential election this year, including abortion and health care.
Among registered voters, more than half of women (54%) say the issue of abortion will be very important in their voting decision, compared with 36% of men — a difference of 18 percentage points. Among all registered voters, 46% say the issue of abortion will be very important to their vote.
While 81% of women voters say health care will be very important, fewer men (67%) view that issue as very important. Women also are more likely than men to view education (by 10 points) and jobs (eight points) as very important. There are no issues that significantly more men than women rate as very important”